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Головна » 2014 » Листопад » 22 » The Ukrainian List of Representative Geosites Ukraine
The Ukrainian List of Representative Geosites Ukraine
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The Ukrainian List of Representative Geosites Ukraine for Europe-wide geosites list 1. Vinnytsa oblast Outcrop Yaryshivskiy suite Mogilev-Podolsky series of Vendian in the village Bernashivka (presented Lyadova, Bernashivskiy, Zenkovskiy and Dzhurzhivskiy layers). Haidamak gully between Bush and Homulivka villages (the canyon of the river Bushynka cut Mogylivsk suite of Vendian in an abandoned quarry, with caves and waterfalls, with the remnants of ancient cultures and Chernyakhivska Tripoli of Copper and Iron Age, the sights during the Cossacks). Stratotype Nahoryanskaya suite Mogilev-Podolsky series of Vendian near the village Nahoryany (outcrops in 0.5 miles above the mouth river Liadova on the left bank of the Dniester River and the caves in the rocky bank of the Dniester performances in carbonate rocks of the Upper Cretaceous of Cenomanian stage. Nearby is a unique monument of antiquity - Holy Useknovensky man cave monastery). 2. Dnipropetrovsk oblast Orlyne nest (Eagle's Nest). (Group of high scenic cliffs on the right bank of Inhulets in Kryvyi Rig. Above the waters of the river and steep bluffs rise up majestic cliffs composed of different rocks of Proterozoic age that within 2km section showing a fragment of one of the world's largest deposits of Kryvyi Rіg iron ore and decorated with picturesque landscape deeply incised valleys). Balka Northern Red (The gully Northern Red belongs to one of the most attractive natural heritage of Kryvyi Rig. It has a complex value, as a national landscape reserve, which are of preservation as objects animate and inanimate nature. On the slopes of the gully exposed by erosion rocky outcrops Kryvyi Riog series rocks of Lower Proterozoic, including shale and ferruginous horizons Skelyuvatska and Saksaganska suites and ferruginous sandstones and conglomerates Hdantsevska suites). Tokivskiy canyon and waterfall on the river Kamianka (River cuts through Tokivskiy massif of pink porphiroblastic Upper Archean granite and forms a canyon, rapids and waterfalls. Granites are known far beyond Ukraine as high quality facing stone). Bila skelia (White rock). (Stratotype Novopavlivska and Vovchanska rock mass Zahidnopryazovskoyi series of lower Archean (AR1zp). A fragment section from a large variety of Precambrian petrotype province geosites of Orihovo-Pavlograd collision structure and mineral diversity). Outcrop skelyuvatska suite of Krivoy Rog Series Lower Proterozoic (In a fairly large rocy outcrops in the steep coastal ledge was Inhulets exposed fragment of the Eastern wing of the main graben-syncline of Krivbass. During approximately 350-400 m along the coast traced section metaconglomerate sandstone-shale formations) . Reference Section of Konkska series Middle Archean of the Kalynova gully (Gully Erozional incision reveals a fragment Verhivtsevo greenstone structure - namely, south-west of its branch (Bazavlukske), the folded rocks of Sura Formation in the consist of komatiite-tholeiitic association rocks. In the upper part of the gully, near the mouth, you can see the texture in metabasaltic amygdaloidal flows metabasalts typical textures of pillow lavas, sometimes polygonal fragments of columnar basalt separately). Kirov of historical and geological monument or Aspidnì shale (roofing, fìlìtovì) on the right bank of river Saksagan, forming the so-called Dekons′ku loop (meander). Meander crosses the 5 ferruginous-shale horizons with 7, constituting the saksagans′ku world proterozoû Kryvyi Rih and lower series reveals numerous outcrops some of their fragments. The monument adds abandoned adit 1873, which has a great historical significance. The southern section of the Kryvyi Rig structure in outcrops along the Ìngulec (on the slopes of the river Ingulets, the stretch between the villages of Lativka and Rahmanivka, on the surface in the form of natural outcrops and old mining, are fragments of section metadacit-andesite-tholeiitic, metakonglomerat-sand-and-shale and dzhespilitic siliceous-shale formations of the upper Archean. the structure of the object describes the building of Tarapako-Lihmanovska structure). 3. Zhytomyrsky oblast Canyon on the Teterev River between the villages of Denyshi - Trigore (cliffs along the Teterev up to 30 m make up over 5 km canyon. Rocks stacked typical granodiorite and monzonite Bukinsky complex of Paleoproterozoik age). Vchelka waterfall and Rock Kraszewski on the river Gnylopyat between the villages of Singury and Perlyavka (waterfall cascaded from the three ledges overall height up to 10 m is in line with Gnylopyat, has a length of 80 m and a width of up to 40. Precambrian rocks, which formed a waterfall, Rocks are represented by Zhytomyr complex migmatites with gneisses teterevska suite of upper Proterozoic. Rockery Kraszewski harmoniously complements the landscape of the Valley of the river Gnylopyat and is like a pyramidal monolith consisting of granites and migmatites Zhytomyrskyi complex paleoproterozoic age in height up to 40-45 m). 4. Zaporizhia oblast Petrotip of mokromoskovskyi granitic complex (in the village of Natalovka, on the left bank of the Mokra Moskovka, below the bridge over the River, in the form of picturesque cliffs, exposed pink-grey granite and aplito-pegmatoidic granite with ksenolites of gneiss, which is characterized the structure Massiv Mokromoskovskyi). Green Tomb (Zelena Mogyla, Eliseevska pegmatite field) (Old quarry near the village Eliseevka is one of the most picturesque areas of terrain, not similar to any other not only in the Priazovie, but in the whole Ukraine, due to the feature of mining pegmatites. Valuable feature of the object is petrological and mineralogical variety of species revealed quarry). Big Stone Cliff (under this name melds a group of picturesque cliffs height up to 30 m in an area of Dry River Conca between the villages of Gusarka and Konks′kì Rozdori length of about 3 km). Skalia Kvarcitovaâ (Donkey ears). (Narrow walls, towering above the surrounding terrain, created by selective denudation of crystalline rocks of the Precambrian, which is located in the midstream of Berda river and contains numerous body quartzites of the enclosing of gneisses and granites biotit-amfibolic with veins tremolitit and aktinolitit. The granite massive “Kamyana Mogyla” (Stone grave) (unique natural formation in the form of rocky hills-outliers on the right slope of the Karatysh River, dominate the flat relief of the Azov steppes of Ukrainian shield at 100-120 m and are the largest outcrop for area of the surface of the Precambrian rocks of the upper Proterozoic Kamennomogilske massiv). An outcrop of ferruginous quartzite Korsak-grave (In the relief of Korsak-Tomb represents two parallel ridges of hills-outliers, elongated in a north-westerly direction and divided narrow gully. Preserved traces of ancient mining as the abandoned quarry, which, for the first time in Ukraine, in 1793, was mined iron ore). Archean outcrop of granite on Hortitsa Island (Khortytskyi granite massif) (The island is a represents perfectly outcropping fragment of the Hortickyi granite massif, with long in a south-easterly direction linearly elongated shape 75 km long and varies in width from 3-6 to 14 km. Island visited and used for the Cimmerians and Scythians, Sarmatians and Goths, Huns, Avars, ants, etc. On the island were Herodotus, Lâsota, Boplan, and many other researchers. The most famous pages of the history of the island on the Dnieper River are associated with Zaporozhye of Cossacks). 5. Cherkasy oblast River Canyon Gorniy Tikich River near the village of Buki (complex monument of nature, which combines 6 geological monuments in a canyon Gorniy Tikich River with waterfalls, rapids, stretches of open water and high Rocky ledges of Precambrian rocks (rock Rodionova, a Rock Outcrop, molibdenvmeŝaûŝih pegmatites Mokritskaya, Crow's nest Rock and The Stone Gate). The reference section of Paleogene and Neogene sediments in the village Katerinopol (In Novoselitsa quarry secondary kaolin is disclosed the most comprehensive and representative section of Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary deposits of the Central district of the Ukrainian shield). Outcrop granite - rapakivi on Green Island in Korsun - Shevchenko (river Ros cuts rapakivi-granite Korsun-Novomirgorod complex Paleoproterozoic and forms a huge canyon with the prepared erosion and weathering of these rocks boulders. Rosychi monument erected on the island that symbolizes the ancient history of the Slavs of Kievan Rus ). Kaniv Glaсiodislokation of Dnieper glacial epoch within Traktemirovsky Regional Landscape Park (Europe's largest and most dynamic in the degree impressive activity consequences glaсiodislokation of Dnieper glacial epoch reflected in relief features and disturbance of the stratigraphic sequence strata of rocks of different ages (from Jurassic to Neogene) due intensive glaсiodislokation as folded and discontinuous nature). 6. Transcarpathian oblast Radwansky andesite outcrop (In abandoned quarry with outcrops andesitic lava of Miocene (11.5 Ma) can be observed volcanic dome formed in the early stage of formation Vygorlat-Gutinsky volcanic ridge, and which is characterized by typical basalt columnar jointing). Vorochovsky rocks (Fragment of the center and lateral of one of the largest craters Antalevsk Miocene (Late Sarmatian - Pannon) paleovolcano in Transcarpathia (9.5 million years). At ledges over 100m and a height of up to 10m exposed andesitic lava Vygorlat-Gutinsky volcanic ridge) . Lumshorsky waterfall (Scenic cascading waterfall on the river Tiritsa in the rocks of the Paleogene flysch with a height of 10m. Flysch rocks traced as outcrop for more than 200 m are also observed everzionnye (gigantic) boilers, distinctive morphological types of microrelief created by erosion of mountain streams Tiritsy in sandstones). Shipot Waterfall in the tract Shipot mountainside Polonynas Runa (The highest waterfall in the Ukrainian Carpathians, located on the south-western slope mountaine Polonyna Runa of the stream Shipot. In watercourse and on the slopes of the creek - a continuous outcrop Paleogene). Columnar basalt outcrop of Klenovetske (On the right of bank Voznitsy in spent career out on to the surface andesite lava Neogene (10,3-10,7 million years), which are the product of a volcanic eruption of one of the largest volcanoes in the Carpathians, the central part of which (caldera) located in the area of mountain Siniak). Ancient Gold Mining adit on the northern outskirts of the Muzhiyevo village Beregovsky area of Transcarpathia (In Mukachevo trough of Transcarpathian internal basin on the hillside Berehovo Large, laid back in the fourteenth century adit in which the system mine workings (drifts, crosscuts, etc.) extracted gold from ore zone, which is called "fault 22"). Seltsevsky volcano (upper part of the volcanic vents (the neck), composed of dioritic porphyrite) (Rocks formed in the Late Sarmatian time (11.0 Ma) and are characterized by typical columnar jointing. Columnar has a complex, frequently changing drawing orientation, resulting in exotic species unique volcanic structures ). Enchanted Valley (Smerekov Stone). (Erosion outcrops formed as a result of selective weathering of andesitic tuffs hydrothermally altered upper Sarmatian - Pannonian. Towering cliffs as high (up to 70 m), resembling the ruins of ancient castles of dense spruce (Smerekovyi) forests). Outcrop of volcanic rocks "Black Mountain" (In Mukachevo Basin, on the right bank of the river Tisza, in steep cliff in length up to 500 m and a height of over 100 m in some places, and in quarry, exposed andesites (Lower Sarmatian-Pannonia, absolute age - 10,1 million years) making up the mouth of the volcano (NEKK). Rocks are intruded by series of rhyolite and rhyodacite dikes). Novoselitske outcrop of Jurassic deposits in the Pennine area Transcarpathian deep fault (In the upper parts Luzhanka and Olhovchik streams, on top of a mountain in the quarries of limestone, exposed pink, red, yellow limestones of Jurassic age, broken by steeply dipping diabase dike Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous). Outcrops of rock salt on the right bank river Tisa in the tract's Zaton (on the western outskirts of Solotvino observed plot area with amazing relief arising over the salt diapir (stock) due to intensive development of the phenomenon of salt karst). 7. Ivano-Frankivsk oblast. Dovbush rocks (Group picturesque rocks composed sandstones of Yamnenske suite of upper Paleocene (55 million years), up to 30-40 m on a flat watershed of pine forest on the outskirts Bubnische in Dolinsk district). Chechvinske tuffs (outcrop light gray liparitic tuffs along the left bank of the steep river Chechvy in Rozhnyativ district in the area between the villages of Upper and Spas Strytyn, the only all Skibove Carpathians representative outcrop tuffaceous rocks in the section Upper oligocenic – lower miotsenic flysch). Rock Nadvirna (typical section variegated continental molasse of Stebnytska Formation Lower Miocene-Borislav Pokutsko cover on the left steep of slope Nadvirna Bystrica). Manyavsky waterfall (16 m high waterfall, rapids and canyon in the valley rivers of Manjavka in Eocene flysch formations of Skibovy cover Carpathians represented here Vygotska suite (40 Ma), folded silicified platy limestones and siltstones, and greenish-gray rhythmical of Manyavsky flysch formation. Tsepiga mountain on the left bank of the river Nadvirna Bystrica on the outskirts village Pniv (typical section of Oligocene flysch formations Skibova zoning Outer Carpathians, which exposed rhythmic interbedded black bituminous shales with interbedded sandstones (Menilite Formation Oligocene-Lower Miocene - Ombronsky – Egersky stage, 25-35 Ma). 8. Lviv oblast. Rock Stone Tripod (On top of a hill in the woods is the original rock - erosional remnant calcareous sandstones of Sarmatian Stage Upper Miocene (11 million years), which is a slabstone plate size 7x4x3 m lying on three "legs" - supports). Rock Kamin-Veleten (isolated rock-cliff 16 m high on top of a hill, which is part-Holohory Kremenetsky ridge and representing erosional remnant calcareous sandstones Sarmatian Stage Upper Miocene (11 million years). Uritskі rocks (group of rocks up to 50 m from the village Urich of Skole district, on the left slope of the valley of the river Urichanka as erosional outlier massive and schistose sandstones of Yamnenska Formation (Upper Paleocene, 55 million years). Rocks and caves on the ridge in Cluch (Key) of Skole district (rock massive sandstones of Yamnenska suite upper Paleocene (55 million years) up to 15-20 m with numerous caves fissure type). 9. Rivenska oblast. Basalt columns in quarries Ivano-Dolinske field in Basaltove village (basalt outcrops trap formation Lower Vendian (Volyn series, ratnenska suite (V1rt) with classic columnar jointing (mostly hexagonal columns, up to 30 m in height). Berestovetske basalt outcrop (ledge of quarty located at Berestovets of Kostopil district is disclosed basalts trap formation Lower Vendian (Volyn series, Ratnenska suite - V1rt) columnar jointing (visible height pillars up to 11 meters). Sokolyne Mountains in the valley of the river Sluch (the rocky outcrops granite and migmatites of Zhitomir complex Paleoproterozoic rocks with xenoliths Teterivska suite collected in linear folds latitudinal direction with an angle of incidence of 25 ° - 45 °). 10.Ternopilska oblast. Stratotype of the Skalska series Upper Silurian on the left steep slope of the valley of the river Zbruch (outcrops carbonate sediments of the Upper Silurian (410-430 Ma), extending over a distance of more than 500 m along the river Zbruch as dramatic cliffs up to 25 and presented platy siliceous and organo-detrital limestones with well-preserved remains the of corals, brachiopods, cephalopods). 10.Ternopilska oblast. Nyrkovsky canyon and waterfall in the river meander Dzhurin (outcrop of red beds of the Lower Devonian (Dniester Series, 400 million years old) with prints armored fishes and copper mineralization). Optimistic cave formed at the bottom of sinkholes in gypsum Tirasska suite Baden stage of Miocene (the world's largest cave in sulphate rocks and the second longest (215 km) of caves in the world, with a very complex maze passages, galleries and halls, which are incorporated by tectonic fractures and form several tiers). Outcrop gypsum of Tirasska suite in Krivche village (typical for an edge part of Carpathian basin evaporite section of sulphate rocks Tirasska suite Upper Baden Formation with unique sedimentary structures in gypsum, with caves and cliffs where you can watch the giant crystal gypsum (up to 10 m in diameter) with a radiating structure) . Stratotype Chertkovsky Lower Devonian suite (in the cliff up to 25 m, at a distance of 250 m, revealed a significant part of the Lower Devonian section in which most fully represented Chertkovsky suite (400 million years). 11. Hmelnitska oblast. Outcrop Kalyus layers of Nagoryanska suite Vendian with phosphorites in the village Minkovtsy (on the left bank river Ushitza in Antonovske ravine over 0.7 km well exposed mudstone Kalyus layers with reniform nodular phosphorite). A typical section Krushanevska, Zharnevska and Danilovska suites near village Sokolets (Continuous section of Kanilovka series on the right bank river Ushitza a wall height of 10 m and a total length of 350 m outcrop). Caves of Atlantis and Malaya Kievlianka at the southern outskirts of the village Zavalie (at the top of the left slope of the valley Zbruch in an abandoned gypsum quarry is the entrance to a cave Atlantis and cave Malaya Kievlianka, formed in the gypsum upper part of the Baden stage (14 million years) of Middle Miocene (length 2025 m Atlantis and 250 m Malaya Kievlianka). Section Vendian sediments, Cambrian, Ordovician and Silurian in village Kytaygorod (in a steep, precipitous left bank river Ternava, at the foot of the slope - an abandoned quarry and a number of exposures to a total length of 1.2 km, height - up to 100 m unique section, which can be studied simultaneously with deposits Vendian, Cambrian, Ordovician and Silurian). Stratotype Studenitska suite near village Goraevka (in the rocky cliffs river Dniester over 2.5 km long and up to 70 m outcropping the best section of Studenitska suite of Vendian: Komarovsky layers (Vendian) alternation of siltstones, mudstones and sandstones predominantly brownish-gray; Polivanovske layers: the alternation of gray siltstones, sandstones and mudstones). Stratotype Subochska suite in the village Goraevka (in the ravine up to 800 m, a depth of 20 m, the bottom and sides and it is disclosed only available cut middle and upper Ordovician submitted Goraevska (O2gr) and Subochska suites (O3sb). Stratotype Goraevska suite on the left bank of the Dniester reservoir (in the steep slopes of a deep ravine of the left bank of the Dniester reservoir exposed section of Goraevska suite Vendian (V2 gr), represented mainly sandstones with remains of brachiopods and gastropods). 12.Chernivetskaya oblast. Rock "Petrified Rich Girl" in the village of Ust-Putila (sandstone rock outcrops Vygotska suite of Middle Eocene (45 million years), height of 25 m on the right slope of the river valley Putila). Dihtinetska anticline on the left bank of the river Putilov in the village Buhtinets (symmetrical anticline with a wingspan of up to 100 m within the southern structure Skibove cover Carpathian flysch formations composed thinrhithmical Upper Oligocene - Lower Miocene (Upper krosnenska subsuite, 20-25 Ma). 13. Crimean oblast Dzhangulske tract in the western part of the peninsula Tarkhankutske (clumpy disintegrated rocks and gathering bizarre landforms in the spread of Sarmatian limestone of Neogene system (13 million years) up to 60 m, converted weathering, abrasion and powerful landslides Black Sea coast). Stratotype of continental sediments of the Upper Miocene and the Middle-Upper Pliocene in village Lyubimovka (most full section continental Miocene-Pliocene deposits in the high coastal cliff of the Black Sea, which is to the south of Ukraine stratotipic that characterize rhithmіc alternation of fossil soils and loess horizons vertical wall lift 40 - 60m). Rocks "Karalezskoy sphinxes" (on the slopes of the valley Karalezske - canyon gorge created by left tributary Bel'bek recessed Inner ridge of Crimean mountains, towering limestone cliffs 14 (15 - 20 m), rocks of Eocene age and resemble the shape of the mythological sphinx). Belbeksky Canyon (Belbeksky Gate) (River Gorge Bel'bek recessed inner ridge of the Crimean mountains and near the villages Big and Small Garden deep canyon 5km length, depth of 160m and a width of 300m. Steep walls of the gorge to the exposed limestone and marl Turonian stage, sandstones and limestones of the Upper Cretaceous Maastrichtian Stage and terigenno-carbonate rocks of Eocene and Paleocene Paleogene with diverse fossil fauna). Reference section of the Cretaceous deposits "Verhoreche" (deep erosion ruts, ravines and mountain slopes of Rizana and White exposed one of the most complete sections of the Cretaceous System of Crimea and contact Taurian series with chalk rocks). Rocks - Sphinxes Tchuruk-Su (in the upper part of the right side of the valley of the river Tchuruk-Su towering rocks stacked Eocene limestones Paleogene (Danish and Montsky stage of Paleocene), transformed into a variety of weathering processes fantastic landscapes). Bakhchisarai stratotype Paleogene of deposits "Suvlu - Kaya (in Paleocene and Eocene ledges cuesta in Bakhchisarai exposed sediments Danish, Montsk, Tanetian, Iprskian and Lyutetsky stages the Paleogene submitted carbonate - terrigenous rocks with full faunal complex governing organic residues). Reference section of Paleogene and Cretaceous sediments in the tract Buckla, located in two eaves-cuesta divided structural terrace (lower rocky ledge complex limestones of the Upper Cretaceous Maastrichtian stage and Danian-Montsk crinoid-worm-bryozoan limestones, the upper – Thanetian marls, clays and nummulitic limestones of Upper Ypresian and Lutetian Paleogene system). Reference outcrop of Bitakska suite Jurassic in Simferopol (Crimea only outcropping clumpy polymictic conglomerates with interbedded sandstones and gravelstones Bitakska suite, characterized fossil fauna of ammonites and bivalves Toarcian and Bajocian Jurassic age of great importance to clarify the stratigraphy and tectonics of the Crimea). Kyzyl-Koba cave on the southern slope of the plateau Dolgorukovske (located in the upper reaches of the river Krasnopescherka (right tributary Angara), formed in Upper Jurassic limestones represents the largest caverns in the Crimea (17.5 km) from the lake and the underground river, with the remnants of Kyzyl-Koba culture (III century b.c.). “Valley of ghosts” on the mountain Demerji (giant, exotic (towers, mushrooms, columns, pyramids) rock formations of conglomerates and limestones of the Upper Jurassic, arising due to selective long weathering in the high part of the Crimea). Mount Ak Kaya (isolated remnant Second (Inner) ridge of Crimean Mountains 5 km north of Belogorsk resembling giant impregnable fortress and built of limestone, calcareous sandstones and Cretaceous Maastrichtian Stage and nummulitic Bakhchsarai limestone stage and Simferopol (Ypresian) Paleogene, with grottos and caves). Volcanic massif Fiolent of cape in Sevastopol (volcanic building on the Crimean peninsula Heracleian with diverse manifestations of volcanic activity in the Middle Jurassic time (Bajocian stage, 150 million years old) in the form of hardened lava spilite-keratophyre the pillow and columnar separately). The Grand Canyon of Crimea (A river Auzun Uzen through tectonic disturbance cuts limestones of the Upper Jurassic Tithonian stage northern slope of the main ridge of the Crimean Mountains and forms a deep narrow canyon with walls rising up to 300 m and wide at the narrowest part of 2-3 m). The Grand Canyon is one of the most impressive places of Crimean peninsula. Situated on Northern slopes of Ai-Petri mountain (the plateau above Yalta) it is beautiful at any time of a season. Walls of the canyon are up to 300m above its bottom, and the width at most narrow place is only 1,5m! Uchan - Su (cascading waterfall 98 meters high in the Upper Jurassic limestones of the main ridge of the Crimean). Uchan-su is a popular tourist attraction and is the highest waterfall in Ukraine. Located 7 km from the city of Yalta halfway to Ai-Petri Mountain. The waterfall is 98 metres (322 ft) high at an altitude of 390 metres (1,280 ft) and is most powerful during the spring when it is fed by snow melt in the mountains. Haphal gorge with a waterfall Jur-Jur within the massif Tyrke (gorge connects plateau Demerji - yayla with a Karaby - yayla of main Crimean ridge, near the Generalskoe village, in the gorge Haphal). Waterfall Jur-Jur (Tatar: Curcur - babbling) is located on the river Satera in East Valley Haphal. Jur-Jur - the most powerful waterfall in Crimea: the average long-term water consumption is 270 liters per second. Waterfall located at an altitude of 468 meters above sea level. The height of the waterfall is 15 meters. The water temperature is less than +10-11 C. Reef massif Alchak (Alchak Mountain, Cape Alchak) (Separately located on the Black Sea, composed marbled coral limestone Upper Callovian – Lower Oxfordian with lots of veins of calcite and transparent varieties - Iceland spar). Karadag Mountain - mountain range of volcanic origin of several ridges, from Early Jurassic rocks of Late Jurassic age to the east of the Crimean Mountains (The Karadag (Black Mountain) mountain massif is an ancient volcano that was active nearly 120-160 million years ago. It is a unique geological formation declared a state monument of nature. It is situated between Koktebel and Kurortnoye. The Karadag is rises to an altitude of 577 m. It is composed of lava and tuff (ranging from basalt to liparite). It consists of a number of ranges and peaks with original forms of weathering. The settlement of Planerskoe (formerly Koktebel’) is situated at the foot of the mountains on the east, and the Krymskoe Primor’e health resort is on the west. The Karadag Division of the Institute of the Biology of the Southern Seas of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine is also located there). Reference section of Middle-Upper Jurassic sediments on the ridge Biyuk-Yanyshar (Best secton Jurassic sediments of the Main Ridge of Crimea from tuffaceous sedimentary formations Karadag Formation Upper Bajocian - Lower Bathonian to Khutoryanskaya suite conglomerates lower - middle Tithonian). Bulganakske field of mud volcanoes in the Eastern Crimea. Bulganakske field of mud volcanoes are located in the vicinity of the village Bondarenkovo, seven kilometers from Kerch. Some mud volcanoes are similar to mud puddles, while others rise above the steppe, a few meters. During the heavy eruptions from the bowels of the earth erupts about 10 000 cubic meters of mud. Some of the active mud hills represent the curious natural phenomena as if imitating the real volcanos in miniature. Throwing out the cold mud which squeezes out from the depths of earthly crust under the pressure of combustible natural gases, they illustrate the oil and gas content of the Kerch peninsula. Mud hills and fields the ammount of which here is more than 50, usually are not high, they are various in shape and rise on the hight from 2 - 3 till 50 metres above surrounding area. Because of the periodic effusions of mud, spreading far on different sides from the holes of the craters, the area which adjoins the hilly cones has cheerless and lifeless view. Only in the craters the liquid mud pulses under the pressure of the gases as if breathing. The ingredients of the hilly muds are silica, alumina, haematite, ions of calcium, magnesium. These muds are used for production of ceramzit and in medicial aims. The most interesting mud hills of the Kerch peninsula are to be necessarily preserved inviolable as samples of the modern development of relief, as important scientific and cognitive objects. Finds of many rare minerals are connected with the mud hills as well as with the iron-ore sediments of the Kerch peninsula. Reference section of Neogene sediments in the village Zavetne on the Kerch peninsula (from Tarkhan stage of lower Miocene to Akchagyl stage of upper Pliocene). Stone mushrooms and waterfalls on the river Satera in Eastern Crimea. It is in the valley of the river Satera between the forests and mountains, on 18 km east of Alushta. The name of the valley and of the same name river received from the Greek word Soter – “savior.” Because there stood a medieval Christian church of Christ Savior. The shape of these rocks was created over many years by erosion and weathering. The bottom layer was friable and quicker to disintegrate, and the top was stronger. Only on the conservation area there are about 10 of these mushrooms. The height of the two largest mushrooms is 7 meters. 14. Mykolaiv oblast Rock outcrop Checheleevska suite of lower Proterozoic (2.1 billion years) near the village in Sofievka Novobuzhsk district (on the right bank Inhul are exposed migmatized amphibole-biotite gneisses with rare thin (0.5-6.0 m) layers of cordierite-biotite gneisses) . Outcrops of granite porphyry Kirovogradskiy complex Proterozoic (Trikratsky granite massif in the mouth of the river Arbuzinka). The Canyon River Mertvovod in porphyry granites Paleoproterozoic of Voznesensk massif between villages Ahtovo and Petropavlivka. 15. Odessa oblast The stratotype Zmeinoostrovska suite of Lower Devonian on the Zmeinyi island in the Black Sea (exclusive Ukrainian output faunistically foundation the Lower Devonian is represented quartz sandstones and conglomerates. Zmeinyi Island is situated at approximately 100 km distance from Odessa and 30 km from Danube mouth. It has 20.5 ha area. At the Antique times, there was Achilles’ temple situated at the Island, since he was considered to be the patron of navigators and the entire Northern Black Sea region where the Greek colonies were situated. According to the legend, the Troy War hero was carried at Zmeinyi Island by his mother goddess Fetida after his death. During the last 20 years, archeological digs have been carried out at this territory, and many antique memorials were found.) The Odessa Catacombs (artificial and natural workings and caves in limestone Pontian stage of Upper Miocene, network of tunnels that consist of three levels, stretching out under the city and reach a depth of 60 m below sea level). 16. Donetsk oblast. Upper Cretaceous outcrop "Mountains Artem" on the right bank of river Siverskiy Donets (in the National Natural Park "Holy Mountain" established In 1997, for the purpose of conservation, restoration and sustainable use of the unique natural and cultural-historical monuments Pridontsovya total area of 40448 ha). Devon paleovolcano in the valley of the River Mokra Volnovakha (Mokrovolnovahsky promising national geological park with a continuous section of Precambrian rocks, Devonian and Carboniferous). Razdolnensky geological reserve in the valley of the rivers and Mokra Volnovakha Kalmius (tectonic contact Devonian and Precambrian rocks that separates hercinides Fold Donbas from crystalline rocks of the Ukrainian shield). Druzhkovske petrified trees in the Upper Carboniferous sandstones of the Donetsk coal basin (in the axial part of the anticline Druzhkovska-Konstantinovska). Outcrop granites Kalmiusskyi massif (rocky outcrops of granite and syenite Hlebodarovske complex of Eearly Proterozoic in the valley of river Kalmius with exotic forms of weathering in the form of stone mushrooms). Katerinivskyi granite massif (A large group of rocks on the slopes of the river valley Kalchyk formed Paleoproterozoic granites of Kamennomogilske complex with a large variety shapes of weathering) 17. Luhansk oblast. Royal rocks in the river valley Upper Provalye (thick strata of sandstone Mospinska suite of Middle Carboniferous Formation as rock ridges up to 100 m, which extends for a distance of more than 1 km along the river Upper Provallia). The neostratotip of Kamenska suite of Middle Carboniferous Formation in North shallow zone folding Donetsk Hercynian structures (Good paleontological characterize thickness alternation of mudstones, siltstones and sandstones with interbedded limestones marking and two coal stratum on the left slope ravine Karaguz). 18. Kyiv oblast. The stratotypical section of Cenozoic sediments in village Novi Petrivtsi (On the right a steep bank of the Kiev reservoir, and in the old quarry and ravine, outcrop a reference to the Dnieper-Donets Basin section of Cenozoic stdiments, whose power reaches 50 m). Granite outcrop in Boguslaw (a group of rocks and boulders up to 12 m, composed of granites Uman complex of Paleoproterozoic age on the banks of the river Ros - petrotypes Boguslavske porphyry granites). 19. Poltava oblast. Isachkovsky salt dome (in the northeastern part of the Dnieper-Donets Basin powerful salt stem (diapir) Devonian to the surface rendered basalt boulders, basaltic tuff, diabase, tuff breccias and dolerite with strong ferruginous limestone and gypsum). Mountain Piviha created pressure-accumulative activity Dnieper glacier (marginal moraine ridge folded moraine and fluvioglacial deposits with large xenoliths Paleogene glacial rocks and intense manifestations glacial tectonic). 20. Sumy oblast. Romensky salt dome (Mountain Zolotukha) (salt stock (diapir) from the Upper Devonian rocks in the core, rising from a depth of about 5 km and intersecting layers of rocks of different ages). Banichske quartzitic sandstones of the Lower Eocene (the north-east of the Dnieper-Donets Basin, in the waste part Banich quarry opened untypical for Buchakska series of Paleogene lithotype, mainly presented strong quartz sandstones and quartzites, historically known as an excellent burr). 21. Kharkiv oblast. Mountain Kremenets (the most complete section of the Upper Jurassic limestone on East European platform that further to the north are replaced by argillaceous rocks, located in the southern part of Izyum, where river Seversky Donets makes a great meander. Here stratotypes Izyumske, Kremenetsky and Priizyumsky suites and the Turonian stage of the Upper Cretaceous.) Volchanske outcrop of the Upper Cretaceous (in the north of the Kharkov region, on the right slope of the Wolf River, a high rocky outcrops rise cretaceous rocks of Campanian and Maastrichtian stage of the Upper Cretaceous with large belemnіtes).
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